Setting up the radius server under Linux to secure the wifi

Computer networks have become, in recent years, major axes of communication. Today, the main developments in these networks aim to promote mobility, to meet the new needs of people, phones and laptops, which are essentially mobile and which are found more and more in society. Wireless networks allow their users to connect from anywhere and access the resources of their networks for everything that is within reach. However, when a wired network already exists, an analysis of existing solutions must be carried out so that the security, performance and quality of the overall network are essential.

Follow this article with me. You will learn a lot of things .

Banggood WW

Wireless technologies:
There are usually several categories of wireless networks, depending on the geographic perimeter offering connectivity (called coverage area):

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Wireless network categories

Network overview:

The “wifi” project consists in equipping the company with a wireless network in order to allow users to connect to the corporate network in a secure manner, without having to connect the network cable, and to also avoid expensive and tedious cabling requiring drilling holes in the walls, all non-interconnected machines must be configured to be able to access the network by Wi-Fi.

Each WiFi access point is wired to the main network, each client is connected wirelessly to an access point.
Materially, to make a Wi-Fi network, we use Access Points (AP) connected to computers (stations) or to a wired network, antennas, and cables if necessary to connect them together.

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wifi network

Choice of solution to deploy:

Choice of network architecture and standard:

Definition of Wi-Fi:
(Wireless Fidelity contraction) initially corresponds to the name given to the certification issued by the Wi-Fi Alliance, formerly WECA, the organization responsible for maintaining interoperability between equipment meeting the 802.11 standard. By abuse of language (and for marketing reasons), the name of the standard today merges with the name of certification. Thus a Wi-Fi network is actually a network meeting the 802.11 standard. The IEEE 802.11 standard (ISO / IEC 802-11) is an international standard describing the characteristics of a wireless local area network (WLAN).

Banggood WW

The operating mode:
On these points, we have retained the following measures:
Wi-Fi can operate in 2 modes:

  • Ad hoc mode: there is no infrastructure whatsoever to set up. Exchanges between Wi-Fi clients take place when they are within range of radio waves. Therefore, there is no possible security in such an operating mode.
  • Infrastructure mode: we base ourselves on a special station called Access Point (AP). It allows a Wi-Fi station to connect to another Wi-Fi station via their common AP. A Wi-Fi station associated with another AP can also interconnect. All of the stations within radio range of the AP form a BSS (Basic Service Set). Each BBS is identified by a BSSID (BSS Identifier) of 6 bytes which often corresponds to the MAC address of the AP. All this makes it possible to control network connections in order to apply security policies to them. So our choice fell on the infrastructure mode.
The different Wi-Fi standards:

Wi-Fi standards are many and diverse. Of all these standards, the best known are 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g, which are the main ones of the 802.11 standard thanks to their wide integration in hardware and software.

The 802.11a standard provides a theoretical speed of 54 Mbps, five times more than 802.11b, for a range of only about ten meters.

Theoretical flow (indoor) scope
54 Mbits/s10 m
24 Mbits/s30 m
12 Mbits/s50 m
802.11a standards and rates

The 802.11b standard makes it possible to obtain a theoretical speed of 11 Mbps, for a range of around fifty meters indoors and up to 200 meters outdoors (and even beyond with directional antennas).

Theoretical flowRange (indoor)Range (outside)
11 Mbits/s 50 m 200 m
5,5 Mbits/s 75 m 300 m
2 Mbits/s 100 m 400 m
1 Mbit/s 150 m 500 m
Scopes and rates for 802.11b

The 802.11g standard provides a theoretical speed of 54 Mbps for ranges equivalent to those of the 802.11b standard. On the other hand, since the 802.11g standard uses the 2.4GHZ frequency band with OFDM coding, this standard is compatible with 802.11b hardware, with the exception of certain older hardware.

Theoretical flowRange (indoor)Range (outside)
54 Mbits/s27 m75 m
24 Mbit/s42 m140 m
12 Mbit/s64 m250 m
6 Mbit/s90 m400 m
Scopes and speeds for the 802.11g standard

Choice of security parameters:
The security of wireless networks is the essential element that discourages many people from deploying this technology. Indeed, since radio waves cannot be reserved in a demarcated space, any person within range of these waves can connect to it and use the network for harmful purposes. Thus, it is essential to deploy large means to secure our Wi-Fi wireless network. For this we have retained the following points:

Edit and Hide the default network name:
A Wi-Fi network always has an identification name so that computers can detect it and connect to it. This name is called the Service Set IDentifier (SSID). If the access point is not configured, the SSID is set by default. So we will modify it, in order to recognize it more easily later.
The SSID is important information for connecting to the wireless network. The access point continuously broadcasts this information to allow computers to detect it. The SSID is not a security function but makes it possible to “hide” its access point from the view of everyone. Once the network has been configured with the computers, the “hide SSID” function, present in the access point, will be activated in order to make the latter “invisible” to the outside world.

Choose an access point password:
The administration of the access point is done via a Web interface accessible by any computer connected by cable or by Wifi. Just enter an IP address (provided by the manufacturer) in the web browser and the default password (provided by the manufacturer) to access the administration. At this point, anyone who can access the network can make changes or modify other parameters of the access point. We will therefore change the password to a new one. This password must comply with the principle of strong passwords.

Filter equipment by MAC addressing:
A MAC (Media Access Control) address is used to physically identify a computer using its network adapter. This address is unique and defined by the manufacturer of the adapter. Each access point offers the possibility of using MAC filtering. The adapter which does not have its MAC address in the authorized list will not be authorized to connect to the network. Note, however, that MAC address filtering is bypassable. Indeed, a Mac address can be emulated under a Linux or even Windows environment.

Choose a highly secure encryption key:
Two types of data encryption currently exist: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) and WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access).

  • WEP encryption: is a security protocol for wireless networks. WEP offers a basic but satisfactory level of security for wireless data transmission.
  • Encryption (WPA and WPA2): is a mechanism for securing Wi-Fi type wireless networks. It was created in response to the numerous and severe weaknesses that researchers found in the previous mechanism, WEP, the WPA secures wireless data transmission using a key similar to the WEP key, but its strength is that this key changes dynamically. It is therefore more difficult for a hacker to discover it and access the network.

Choose an authentication method based on certificates:
The EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is not an authentication protocol as such, but a transport protocol for authentication protocols such as TLS, MD5, PEAP, LEAP, etc. Indeed, with this method, the authentication protocol packets are encapsulated in the EAP packets.
Its purpose is the authentication of a user on an unopened network, because initially, in this type of network, only EAP traffic is allowed (to allow authentication). The network is only opened after authentication. An EAP authentication method uses different elements to identify a client such as: the “login / password” pair, “electronic certificates”, “smart cards (SIM)”, etc.
In addition to authentication, EAP manages the dynamic distribution of encryption keys (WEP or WPA). The two EAP authentication methods using certificates are:

  • PEAP (Protected EAP): The PEAP authentication process consists in establishing a secure TLS tunnel between the client and the authentication server, by authenticating the RADIUS server using a certificate. Then, it is possible to choose between the MS-CHAPv2 (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2) or TLS method to authenticate the user. When the PEAP method is used it is often to avoid using client certificates, it is therefore logical that on the two methods proposed by PEAP, the use of Login / Password, via MS-CHAP, is largely preferred.
  • EAP-TLS (EAP-Transport Layer Security): EAP-TLS is a mutual authentication method, which means that the client and the server prove their identity respectively. During the EAP-TLS exchange, the remote access client sends its user certificate and the remote access server sends its computer certificate. If any of the certificates is not sent or is not valid, the connection is terminated. Recall that TLS, the standardized version of SSL (Secure Socket Layer), is a secure transport protocol (encryption, mutual authentication, integrity control).

We will therefore use the EAP-TLS method which offers the most security. With the EAP -TLS method, authentication of the access client can be done in different ways:

a- Using a personal certificate associated with the machine, authentication takes place when the machine is started.
b- Using a personal certificate associated with the user, authentication takes place after the user enters the session.

We opted for the second method because it increases the level of security.
We worked in a Unix environment so I will give some details as follows:
Certificates: A certificate allows a public key to be associated with an entity (a person, a machine, …) in order to ensure its validity. The certificate is a sort of public key identity card, issued by an organization called the CA Certification Authority. The certification authority is responsible for issuing certificates, assigning them a validity date (equivalent to the expiry date for food products), as well as revoking certificates if necessary before this date in the event of the key being compromised ( or the owner).

Structure of a certificate: Certificates are small files divided into two parts:

  • The part containing the information
  • The part containing the signature of the certification authority

The certificate structure is standardized by the ITU X.509 standard (more precisely X.509v3), which defines the information contained in the certificate:

  • The version of X.509 to which the certificate corresponds.
  • The serial number of the certificate.
  • The encryption algorithm used to sign the certificate.
  • The name (DN, for Distinguished Name) of the issuing certification authority.
  • The start date of the certificate.
  • The date of expiry of the certificate.
  • The purpose of using the public key.
  • The public key of the certificate owner.
  • The signature of the certificate issuer.
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Hardware and software components:

1- Operating systems used:
• Linux: kali-linux-1.1.0a for the server
• Windows XP for client workstations
2- Wi-Fi wireless access points:
Wehave D-Link reference access points. “D-Link + Router ADSL“.
The access point must integrate WPA for the modification of encryption keys as well as 802.1x for receiving requests from clients and relaying them to the authentication server (RADIUS type).

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D-Link DWL-3200AP Access Point

3- Wireless client network adapters:
PCI network cards and its following technical characteristics:
• Compatible with Linux, MAC OS XXX and Windows XP, certified for Windows Vista.
• Wireless data transfer rate of up to 54 Mbps.
• WEP, WPA and WPA2 encryption supported.
• External antenna.

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Carte réseau PCI

4- Modems / routers:
Modems / routers offer a two-in-one solution by grouping in one device a modem (to access the Internet line) and a router to share this connection on your different computers.
5- USB:
This format quickly became popular for its ease of use and manufacturers were quick to offer Wi-Fi cards in this format as well.

Presentation of the security solution selected and tested for the wifi network:

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) is a client / server protocol intended to allow access servers to communicate with a centralized database grouping together all of the remote users. This central server (called RADIUS server) will authenticate these users, and authorize them access to this or that resource. Another important feature of a RADIUS server is the accounting of information about remote users.

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Solution concept based on EAP-TLS 802.1X authentication

This diagram describes four main components:

  • The wireless client. It is a computer or device running an application that needs to access network resources. This client is capable not only of encrypting its network traffic, but also of storing and exchanging identity information (keys or passwords).
  • The wireless access point manages network access and encrypts wireless traffic. It allows encryption keys to be exchanged securely with the client, in order to secure network traffic. Finally, it can query an authentication and authorization service to authorize or refuse access to the network.
  • The NAAS service (Network Authentication and Authorization Service). This service stores and verifies the identity of authorized users, and manages access in accordance with the defined access control policy. It can also collect accounting and audit information on client access to the network.
  • The internal network. It is a secure network services area to which the wireless client application must have access.

Radius architecture to be implemented:

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Radius architecture

Each user profile can launch requests on the web secured by the Radius service:

  • The Radius server allows the administration of all radius clients installed in the Application layer on the company’s servers: Exchange server, web, BD, etc.
  • Radius clients allow encryption of requests on the server before submission on the internet.

Installation of the Radius central server:

In this part, we will detail the steps for installing the programs necessary for our experimentation.

Installation and configuration of OpenSSL:

1- Installation:
We use the openssl-0.9.7g version
We start by decompressing the file to install it using the Next command:

Root@SJ~/Desktop # tar zxvf openssl-0.9.7g.tar.gz
Root@SJ~/Desktop # cd openssl-0.9.7g
Root@SJ~/Desktop # ./config –prefix=/usr/local/openssl-certgen shared
Root@SJ~/Desktop # make
Root@SJ~/Desktop # make install

OpenSSL compiles, it lasts more or less long depending on the machine used. When the compilation is complete, a message like below will appear.

Compilation of OpenSSL

2- Configuration:
Now you need to edit the OpenSSL configuration file. This file contains various information such as: the name of the company, the country, the e-mail address, the name of the owner of the certificate … Editing via the text editor (we will use gedit) of the openssl .cnf configuration file

Root@SJ~/Desktop # gedit /usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl/openssl.cnf
Information to be completed

The installation of OpenSSL is complete.

3 – Generations of certificates:

The following scripts can be downloaded: xpextensions, CA.root, CA.svr, CA.clt These are necessary for the generation of certificates. Already having the scripts, we only have to copy them in the appropriate path: / usr / local / openssl-certgen / ssl
Do not forget to create the xpextensions file in the / usr / local / openssl-certgen / ssl directory Launch the vi text editor: vim xpextensions … then type:

…et enregistrez : : wq

Note: once downloaded, these 3 files have the extension .txt (to be less heavy), and thus become CA.root.txt, CA.clt.txt and CA.svr.txt They must therefore be renamed to CA. root, CA.clt, and CA.svr. To do this, go to the directory where they were saved during the download and do:

# mv CA.root.txt CA.root
# mv CA.svr.txt CA.svr
# mv CA.clt.txt CA.txt

Then, move them to the directory where the xpextensions file was created (that is to say / usr / local / openssl-certgen / ssl), using the command:

# cp CA.root CA.svr CA.clt /usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl/

4- Generation of the root certificate:
The root certificate itself, the certification authority, will be generated by the CA.root file, also allowing the signing of other certificates (client, server, etc.). The launch of the root certificate will be done by the following command:

[/usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl] # chmod 700 CA.root
[/usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl] # ./CA.root
Generating the root certificate

5 – Generating the server certificate:
Before running this script, make sure that the serial file is present in the demoCA directory (created in the previous step). If this one (serial) does not exist, you will have to create it, then place a hexadecimal value in this same file. Unlike the root certificate, we will first have to add an additional parameter which will be the name of the file we want to obtain (server name). This must be registered following the execution of the CA.svr script as follows:

[/usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl] # chmod 700 CA.svr
[/usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl] # ./CA.svr nom_du_serveur

In a second step, you will have to answer the questions as before, this being said to the question Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []: we will have to answer using the added parameter (as above: we use EST):

Generating the server certificate

We are therefore left with the server.pem, server.der, server.p12 files, the latter of which must be installed on each client computer.

6 – Generation of the client certificate:
The same manipulation must be repeated (server certificate) in order to obtain the client certificate. Except for the question Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []: you will just have to enter the user name (here it will be selma) as below:

[/usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl] # chmod 700 CA.clt
[/usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl] # ./CA.clt nom_du_client (ex : selma)
Génération du certificat client

We will therefore have the following 3 files: selma.pem, selma.der, selma.p12, the last of which must be installed on each client computer.

Installation and configuration of freeradius:

1- Installation :
Version utilisée : freeradius-1.0.4

# tar zxvf freeradius-1.0.4.tar.gz
# cd freeradius-1.0.4
# ./configure
# Make
# Make install
End of freeradius installation

Now that freeradius is well installed, we need to copy the server.pem, root.pem certificates to the / etc / raddb / certs directory first using the cp command.

# cd /etc/raddb/certs
# rm –rf *
# cp /usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl/root.pem /etc/raddb/certs
# cp /usr/local/openssl-certgen/ssl/serveur.pem /etc/raddb/certs

In a second step, we will generate two random files: dh and random, which will allow us to better secure our radius server.

[/etc/raddb/certs] # openssl dhparam –check –text -5 512 –out dh

Finally create and compile this short program in C to generate a file containing random characters.

[/etc/raddb/certs] # touch random.c
[/etc/raddb/certs] # gedit random.c

Copy these few lines from C to the random.c file:

Pour compiler : gcc –o random random.c –lcrypto

#include <stdio.h>
#include <openssl/rand.h>
int main (void) {
unsigned char buf [100] ;
if (! RAND_bytes(buf,100)) ;
Printf (“Random : %s \n”, buf) ;
return 1 ;

Then execute the following command:

[/etc/raddb/certs] # gcc random.c –o random -lcrypto

Test with the order:

[/etc/raddb/certs] # ./random

2- Fichiers de configuration de freeradius :

The configuration files are in / etc / raddb, these files are very well commented and constitute the documentation of freeradius. The following section presents the main configuration files changed:

eap.conf: for the configuration of EAP authentication methods. The content of this file was initially included in the module part of the file “radiusd.conf” but the developers preferred to separate it for reasons of readability because it became increasingly large due to the number of EAP authentication methods different. Depending on the EAP methods that the server will have to support in its production environment, there may be some parameters to configure. For example in the case of authentication via EAP-TLS, you will need to indicate the directory containing the server certificate (which he will send to the supplicant) and the private key with the associated password, that containing the certificate of the authority (which will verify the certificate provided by the supplicant), indicate whether the server must verify a file containing the revoked certificates or whether it is necessary to verify that the name of the user corresponds to the name of the owner of the certificate provided.

clients.conf: to define and configure the dialogue with the authenticators. Here are listed the authenticators via a name, an IP address and a shared secret. Other optional information can be added to avoid simultaneous logins of the same user.

Users: is the users file. A user is defined by name and authentication method (depending on the method, this file may contain passwords).

radiusd.conf: for the global configuration of the server. This file is divided into two large parts, first the parameters specific to the daemon (listening interfaces, port, etc.), then a module definition part (definition and configuration of the authentication modules available except those of the EAP type which are treated separately, logging modules, relaying requests, etc.).

eap.conf file:

#gedit /etc/raddb/eap.conf

We specify that we want to use EAP-TLS and not MD5.

Default_eap_type = tls

After we configure EAP-TLS, we have to remove the comments (# in front) from Line 122 and we modify the certificate paths:

  • Private_key_password: is the password of the server certificate (by default is whatever we can modify it by editing the CA.svr file).
  • Private_key_file and certificate_file: is the path to the server certificate.
  • CA_file: is the path for the root certificate.
  • dh_file and random_file: are the paths to the random files that we previously generated
  • Check_cert_cn: allows you to verify that the user name provided by the client is the same as that in the certificate (useful because some drivers offer to choose the user name and the certificate).
  • Check_crl: is the only parameter that we leave to comment, it allows to check if the certificate has not been revoked.
  • Clients.conf file:
#gedit /etc/raddb/clients.conf

This file is used to define the list of APs which are authorized to access the radius server. The Server and the AP share a secret (a key) to encrypt the data. By default we authorize localhost ( with the secret: testing123 (to perform local tests).

Client {
Secret = testing123
Shortname = localhost
Nastype = other

To add our wifi terminal with the IP address

Client {
Secret = demoh
Shortname = D-Link
Nastype = other

Users file:

#gedit /etc/raddb/users

Edit it and add the following line at the top of the text, before anything else:

« Username » Auth-Type : = local, User-Password == “hiangodan”

This allows us to verify the tests locally. In this file, we define the list of users that we authorize. We previously managed the certificate for the user selma, so we add at the end of the file:

“selma” Auth-Type : = EAP

It is specified that the user “selma” can authenticate with the EAP method (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-PEAP, …). To force a type, you must use the EAP-Type attribute, for example if you want the user to do only EAP-TLS, you must then put:

“selma” Auth-Type : = EAP, EAP-Type : = EAP-TLS

Fichier radiusd.conf :

#gedit /etc/raddb/radiusd.conf

That said, the configuration of radiusd.conf should not be completely changed.

Server test launch: If all goes well, you only have to use the daemon with the command: radiusd –X –A &, We get at the end:

#radiusd –X –A &

Listening on authentication *:1812
Listening on accounting *:1813
Ready to process requests.
Launch of the radius server

This step demonstrates that the server has been installed and configured correctly. To stop the radius, just type:

#killall radiusd

Now you have to test locally with the following command:

# radtest username hiangodan localhost 0 testing123

We checked the proper functioning of the server, with the response “Access-Accept”

  3 – Access point configuration:

Assigning the static IP address of the AP
Assigning the radius IP address to the AP

So the configuration is finished.

Configuration of the client workstation under Windows XP:

1-Installation of the authority certificate:
You just have to double click on root.der
Step 1: then click on “install certificate”

Begin installation of root certificate

Step 2: finish

End of certificate import
End of certificate import

The import of the root certificate is complete.

2- Installation of the client certificate:

Step 1: “next”

Installation confirmation

Step 2: We entered the password used in the client certificate (Password: hiangodan)


Step 3: selection of the certificate store that we want to use

Choix de l’emplacement du certificat

Step 4: finish

End of certificate import
confirmation de la réussite

3 – Wireless connection configuration:

Choice of wireless connection property
Choice of Internet Protocol TCP / IP
Choice of network authentication type and data encryption type

Select the type of authentication

Choice of EAP type

Check “networks with access point only (infrastructure)”, then close.

Choice of network with access point only

So we’ve finished setting up our wireless connection. We will now try to connect to the network, but first we launch the radius server.

The card has detected a single wireless network.

  • When we manage to associate with the access point and the radius responds to us: Radius displays the exchanges of EAP messages between him and the client.
Waiting for authentication
Successful authentication and transition to the connected state


At the end of this work I was able to successfully design and install a WiFi network architecture based on the security of the Radius solution:

  • Traffic that is not registered in the server as authorized traffic will not be able to access the network, or even perceive its existence.
  • In case the person is in possession of the network SSID, he will still not be able to access it without the certificates which are installed as well, in the client workstations as in the server.
  • The exchange of authentication information is done in an encrypted manner and by an improved protocol, which has not yet been broken. In addition to the fact that the 802.1x authentication protocol has given very good results for wired networks, through the use of authentication server under Linux, which as we know is not afraid of viruses.

This internship allowed me to acquire diversified technical skills and recognition of the practical field of work and to get closer to the reality on the ground.

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